Member Login








In Person

Art & Literature


Philosophy & Religion

Peace & Conflict

Shamanism & Rebirth

Politics of Diagnosis

Therapeutic Communities

·SLS Annual·

Submit a Paper

·About the SLS·

Site Staff


Patrons & Sponsors

Join the Society

Contact us

· Resources ·

Search the Site

powered by

Notes and Notation

A Timeline

Further Links

About this site

In the News

SLS Newsletter


Associate site

The International R.D. Laing Institute

| SiteMap | New Articles | Site Search |


Timeline in the History of Madness

Notes and Notation
Essentially, all that is required to reference publications accessed via the web is to use whatever style you normally would, and add the date accessed and the exact URL to the end of the citation, with style differing only slightly depending on the source of original publication, as follows:

I. Electronic First Editions

Articles which have their first publication on this site should be cited as follows:

Author name. "Title of Document". Institution or organisation name. Date accessed. URL.

for example:

Galis-Menendez, Juan. "Audietur et altera pars." Society for Laingian Studies. Accessed 16 January 2003*.

(*or whatever date you accessed the page)

Webpages that do not indicate an author's name, such as the page you are reading now, can simply be cited

"Page title", Organisation, Institution or Individual's name. Date accessed. URL.

for example:

"Notes and Notation", The Society for Laingian Studies. 16 January 2003.>

This would take you to the exact page accessed.

II.Print Publications

The same rules apply for articles accessed online that have previously been published in print:

Ratner, Carl."The Critical Psychology of R.D. Laing" in Telos, vol. 5, 1970. Accessed 16 January 2003.>


About Page Numbers

It is not acceptable to make reference to a page number if you've printed a web document because pagination can vary considerably between printers, or between font specifications with the same printer. The URL refers to an exact location, and should be used instead.

... and a few words (of complaint) About Framesets

The greatest obstacle to accurately citing a page accessed on a website is caused by framesets. Normally the path to the exact page being viewed will show in the address bar at the top of the browser window; however, because of the way framesets are designed, every page in every subdirectory will load under the domain url, which would be equivalent to simply referring to a book without any page number.

Ironically, an example of how problematic this can be in the accurate citation of electronic documents is found on the MLA website.

Linda Leger at Malaspina University College has prepared a concise reference page on the subject of citing sources from the Web, with links to the MLA, APA and CBE Style websites.

On this page, she provides the following instructions; "Once you are at the website, click on MLA Style, then click on Documenting Sources from the World Wide Web from the side frame."

If you go to the site at you will notice that the navigation directory has changed, and the page can't be accessed that way any more.

A way to get around not having the exact location of a document is to open the document by itself in a new window. Fortunately most browsers (such as Netscape) provide this option in the toolbar menu, or by right-clicking the mouse and selecting, "open this frame in a new window".

The relevant FAQ page for MLA style is here:

The MLA page "How do I document sources from the World Wide Web in my works-cited list?" is available here:

These pages will open outside of the frameset, so the main navigation links will not be available, however, you can get to that page by shortening either of these URLS to

To make it easier to cite the documents, the Society for Laingian Studies site was not written in a frameset, i.e., the URL in the address bar is the precise location of the document and page. Details of prior publication (when applicable), are noted at the bottom of each page, so it is merely a matter of appending the date the page was accessed and the URL you see in the address bar.


Announcements, news and notes of interest?
Please email details to the
admin. Thanks.

Locations of visitors to this page